Testosterone was the very first anabolic steroid to be successfully manufactured. The injectable testosterone compound testosterone propionate is a fast-acting, short-ester oil-based testosterone compound that is often given for the treatment of hypogonadism – low testosterone levels – and different symptoms associated with hypogonadism in men.
Testosterone propionate was initially reported in 1935 as a way to maximize the therapeutic utility of synthetic testosterone by delaying the release of the hormone into circulation. Testing for clinical usage began two years later with the introduction of Testoviron, a hybrid combination of testosterone enanthate and other ingredients by Schering AG in Germany, under the brand name Testoviron. This was also the first commercially accessible variant of testosterone on the prescription medication market in the United States, and it remained the most widely used form of testosterone until 1960.
Testosterone is the androgen that is present in the highest concentration in the body. Cells in the testicles, ovaries and adrenal cortex create testosterone, which is produced by the body. In the treatment of hypogonadism, whether congenital or acquired, testosterone is employed. Aside from that, testosterone is the most effective exogenous androgen in the palliative treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Testosterone was first used in 1938 and was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration in 1939. Anabolic steroids, which are testosterone derivatives, have long been used illegally and are now considered restricted drugs. A restricted drug since 1991, testosterone, like many anabolic steroids, has been classed as a psychoactive substance. A variety of dose formulations, including standard and delayed-release (depot) testosterone, are available for administration through the parenteral route. testosterone transdermal patches (Androderm) were authorized by the FDA for the first time in September 1995; now, a wide variety of transdermal forms and brands are available, including implants, gels, and topical solutions. Striant, a testosterone buccal system, was authorized by the FDA in July 2003. The system is a mucoadhesive device that clings to the buccal mucosa and delivers testosterone in a regulated and sustained manner. The Food and Drug Administration authorized an intranasal gel formulation in May 2014. (Natesto). It is now being investigated if a transdermal patch (Intrinsa) may be used for hormone replacement in women; the daily doses used in women are much lower than those used in males. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) decided in late 2004 that it would postpone the approval of Intrinsa women’s testosterone patch and that further evidence on safety, particularly in connection to cardiovascular and breast health, would be necessary.
Esterification of the Propionate: An ester is any of a group of chemical compounds that react with water to form alcohols and organic or inorganic acids. The vast majority of esters are produced from carboxylic acids, and injectable testosterone is often provided in conjunction with one or more esters. The presence of a carbon chain (ester) connected to the testosterone molecule regulates the amount of soluble testosterone that is present in the circulation after it has entered the body. The longer the carbon chain, the less soluble the drug; a large/long ester will have a longer half-life. The greater the carbon chain, the longer the ester, and the less soluble the medication. When it comes to short carbon chains, such as the propionate ester, the opposite is true. The propionate ester works quickly on the body and then promptly expels it. The testosterone ester, which has a three-carbon chain, has the shortest half-life of all testosterone esters, lasting just four days.
Mechanism of action
At all phases of development and throughout life, endogenous testosterone is responsible for the maturation of sexual organs. It is created synthetically by combining cholesterol with other ingredients. Males’ development starts with the development of the fetus, is critical throughout puberty, and continues to play a significant part in the development of adult men. Women’s ovaries also release modest quantities of testosterone but at minute levels. The amount of androgens secreted by the adrenal cortex is inadequate to sustain male sexuality in adulthood.
An increase in androgen plasma concentrations inhibits the release of gonadotropins (thereby decreasing endogenous testosterone), luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone via a negative-feedback process. Testosterone also has an effect on the production of erythropoietin, the balance of calcium in the body, and the level of glucose in the blood. The high lipid solubility of androgens allows them to penetrate target tissues quickly, allowing them to exert their effects as quickly as possible. Within the cells, testosterone undergoes enzymatic conversion to 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, which binds to cytosolic receptors and forms a loosely coupled complex with them. Androgen activity results from the activation of transcription and the induction of cellular alterations in the nucleus, which are brought about by the steroid-receptor complex.
Endogenous androgens, in their natural state, activate RNA polymerase, resulting in an increase in protein creation.
Among other things, these proteins are important for the growth and maturation of the prostate, seminal vesicle, penis, and scrotum in the course of normal male sexual development. At the onset of puberty, androgens produce a rapid rise in the growth and development of muscle, as well as a redistribution of fat throughout the body. Changes take occur in the larynx and vocal cords as well, which results in a deeper voice. The development of the beard and the growth of body hair mark the end of puberty. The androgens are also responsible for the fusion of the epiphyses and the end of growth, as well as for the maintenance of spermatogenesis. To maintain normal male growth and development when endogenous androgens are lacking, the use of synthetic or exogenous androgens is required.
Intramuscular (IM) testosterone injections, subcutaneous injections, topical gels, solutions, ointments, or transdermal systems for transdermal absorption, the implantation of long-acting pellets, and buccal systems are all methods of delivering testosterone to the patient’s body.
Testosterone is linked to protein in the blood serum. SHBG binding is quite strong, whereas albumin binding is very weak. It has a strong affinity for SHBG, but a weak affinity for albumin. The albumin-bound component is released from its bond with the albumin. The desire for SHBG evolves during the course of a person’s life. When you are young, you have a high level of testosterone, which drops throughout adolescence and adulthood, then increases again in old age. It has been discovered that DHT, the active metabolite of testosterone, has a higher affinity for SHBG than testosterone. In humans, the elimination half-life ranges from 10 to 100 minutes, and it is depending on the quantity of free testosterone present in the blood.
It is predominantly the liver that is responsible for the conversion of testosterone into different 17-keto steroids. It acts as a substrate for the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 isoenzyme (hepatic cytochrome P450 3A4). 1 The active metabolites estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) are the most abundant, with DHT undergoing further metabolism. Testosterone activity seems to be dependent on the synthesis of DHT, which binds to cytosol receptor proteins and stimulates testosterone production. The reproductive organs are responsible for the further metabolism of DHT. Approximately 90% of an intramuscular testosterone dosage is eliminated in the urine as conjugates of glucuronic and sulfuric acids, according to the National Institutes of Health. Approximately 6% of the total is eliminated in the feces, with the majority of it being unconjugated. In the literature, there is a great deal of variance in the half-life of testosterone, with values ranging from 10 to 100 minutes.
CYP3A4 and P-gp are the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and drug transporters that have been affected.
A substrate for CYP3A4, testosterone is also both a transporter of and an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport, making it a versatile hormone.
Pharmacokinetics based on the route of administration:
The intramuscular route is the most common. In recent years, testosterone formulations have been produced that delay the rate of testosterone production, with esters being less polar and absorbing more slowly from intramuscular locations.. Esters have a duration of effect of 2–4 weeks after being administered intravenously (IM). After being hydrolyzed, the esters yield free testosterone, which is then inactivated in the liver.
Testosterone Propionate Has a Number of Advantages
When it comes to treating different sorts of low-level testosterone issues in both men and women, regardless of their age, testosterone propionate has emerged as one of the most effective hormone replacement medicines available. Furthermore, appropriate testosterone is necessary for both men and women’s physical, emotional, and mental health, and it improves the overall quality of life in both sexes when levels are adequate. The following are some of the unique advantages of testosterone propionate:
Hypogonadism in Men:
What to Do If You Have It
A pure testosterone hormone, testosterone propionate, is generally used to treat men who are unable to create enough testosterone on their own in order to maintain healthy body weight.
In males, the testicles are in charge of the generation of testosterone in their bodies. Hypogonadism is a condition in which the testicles are unable to generate this essential sex hormone. Because of a malfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis of the brain, or because of the inability of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands to transfer signals to the testicles, testosterone production is a secondary cause in many cases.
But how common is hypogonadism in the general population? According to the Department of Sexual Medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine, there are between 4 and 5 million men in the United States who suffer from hypogonadism. Over 60% of those over the age of 65 have low testosterone levels, which is a significant proportion.
Testosterone propionate has been shown to be beneficial in normalizing testosterone levels in patients, converting low testosterone levels to more effective higher testosterone levels.
The Process of Increasing Muscle Mass
Because of its capacity to interact with and activate androgen receptors, testosterone propionate may aid in the acceleration of muscle mass gain, the reduction of body fat, and the promotion of muscle repair. With the administration of testosterone propionate, it is advised that the patient combine healthy diets with regular body exercising in order to increase muscle mass and density.
Athletes and bodybuilders have long relied on testosterone propionate to improve their overall physical performance and appearance. Additionally, athletes utilize it to build strength and gain lean body mass in competition.
Breast Cancer in Women:
A Guide to Treatment
Hormone therapy has long been recognized as being critical in the treatment and management of breast cancer in female patients.
In research was undertaken by The International Institute of Anticancer Research, 53 individuals with metastatic breast cancer were tested, all of them were diagnosed with the disease. Patients were faced with the progression of their sickness as well as the initiation of therapy with additional hormones. Testosterone propionate was supplied at regular intervals during the study.
The findings revealed that there had been statistically significant beneficial improvements. According to the findings of the research, testosterone is a viable therapy option for women who have advanced breast cancer that has spread to their bones.
Women’s Menopausal Symptoms:
A Guide to Treatment
Women’s menopause is not a medical condition, but rather a normal period of life. Infertility happens when the ovaries (which are the major source of female hormones) are unable to operate properly. In many situations, menopause is linked to the passage of time. It is possible for women to experience menopause as early as their 30s or as late as their 60s, depending on their age.
In addition to mood swings and sex-related issues (such as reduced sex desire and vaginal dryness), irregular periods, hot flashes, and other symptoms, menopause may cause physical and emotional changes that might influence one’s overall quality of life.
Precipitating factors of menopause include a decrease in estrogen levels in the body, which results in a decrease in ovarian-pituitary communication, which leads to the onset of menopause. Menopausal hormone treatment (MHT) is often used to treat and manage the symptoms of the menopausal transition. MHT consists of the administration of estrogens and progesterone. Hormones that are not as specific as other testosterone hormones (such as testosterone propionate) may be used in this situation as well.
Increasing the likelihood of weight loss
Men who have low testosterone levels have been shown to be more likely to be obese, according to research. Obesity has been shown to lower the amount of testosterone in the bloodstream. According to the findings of the study, 30 percent of obese men had lower testosterone levels than men who were of normal body weight.
Testosterone replacement treatment has been the most effective means of increasing low testosterone levels to far. Testosterone replacement treatment has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing excessive weight gain in males, according to research findings.